2. Pathogenesis and Prevention of Scaphoid Fractures in Motocross
Jose Luis Ramos Martin, MD, Roberto Seijas MD, PhD, Pedro Álvarez-Díaz, MD, Oscar Ares, MD, PhD, Andrea Sallent, MD, Ramon Cugat, MD, PhD
Motocross is a popular sport that requires both physical and mental dexterity. We have observed that 52% of the most frequent injuries in motocross affect the upper extremity. Some of these injuries are unilateral compartment syndrome in the flexors of the forearmwhich requires subcutaneous fasciotomy–, bilateral osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow and, very frequently, scaphoid fracture due to falls. The wrist is very often involved in injuries related to this sport.
The main of the present study is to study the mechanism of action of scaphoid fractures in motocross and find preventive measures that can be applied to motocross athletes against scaphoid fracture. A systematic review was carried out in Pubmed and Cochrane Library Plus using the kew words mentioned below as a search strategy.
We then selected 13 articles, reviewed them, compiled the data and analysed it afterwards. We have found that the main trigger for scaphoid fracture is the hyperextension and hyperflexion of the wrist.
A correct wrist immobilization as well as exercising the forearm muscles would lead to a better control of stabilization during the following seconds of a fall. Useful exercises include for example eccentric contraction during 12 weeks. An important aspect of prevention is always regarding the equipment. Wrist guards should always be worn as they significantly reduce the risk of injuries during a fall. A wrist guard can limit hyperextension to an extent with the help of an external stabilizer.
Key words: Motocross; Scaphoid fracture; Scaphoid nonunion
Martin JLR, Seijas R, Álvarez-Díaz P, Ares O, Sallent A, Cugat R. Pathogenesis and Prevention of Scaphoid Fractures in Motocross. International Journal of Orthopaedics 2015; 2(1): 188-190